IRG2 - Polarization-Enabled Electronic Phenomena
IRG2 - Polarization-Enabled Electronic Phenomena

The IRG is aimed at exploring and exploiting ferroelectric (FE) polarization as a state variable that allows realization of polarization-controlled electronic, transport, and other functional properties of oxide, organic, and hybrid FE-based structures. This involves ferroelectrically induced resistive switching phenomena and the associated memristive behavior, FE modulation of electronic confinement at the hybrid FE/semiconductor and organic interfaces, as well as development of novel functional systems based on newly synthesized organic ferroelectrics where molecular interactions are responsible for macroscopic dipole ordering. These scientifically rich problems comprise the involvement of multiple degrees of freedom, the critical role of interfaces, and the interplay between physical and chemical properties at the nanoscale. They require comprehensive fundamental understanding and hold a lot of promise for technological innovations, including new paradigms for data storage and conceptually novel photovoltaic applications.

IRG 2 Researchers

Alexei Gruverman (coordinator) - PFM, CAFM

Vitaly Alexandrov - theoretical physical chemistry

Stephen Ducharme - Langmuir-Blodgett, dielectric testing

Chang-Beom Eom - PLD

Xia Hong - Oxide sputtering, nanofab

Jinsong Huang - Phototransport

Alexander Sinitskii - Chem. synthesis, devices, Raman

Evgeny Tsymbal - Theory spin transport and oxide FE

Xiaoshan Xu - Laser MBE

Xiao Cheng Zeng - Theory organic FE




Research Thrust 1:
Polarization-controlled Electronic Transport

Thrust 1 is focused on the electrically controlled transport properties in tunneling systems where FE polarization drives giant resistive switching effects through the modulation of the tunneling barrier and induced metalinsulator transitions at the interface.


  • Switchable interface resistance
  • TER driven by interfacial phase transitions
  • Interface chemistry effect on TER
  • Voltage-free control of TER

Research Thrust 2:
Polarization-enabled Functional Hybrid Structures

Thrust 2 is centered on polarization-enabled electronic properties of hybrid FE interfaces where electronic confinement gives rise to novel phenomena, which are promising for unconventional electronic devices with new functionalities.


  • Polarization-mediated modulation of graphene electronic properties
  • Polarization-induced phase transitions in shape-memory alloys
  • Polarization-enhanced photovoltaic effects

Research Thrust 3:
Low-dimensional Molecular Ferroelectrics

Thrust 3 is focused on polarization states in novel low-dimensional molecular ferroelectrics where macroscopic ordering is controlled at the molecular level providing new approaches towards polarization-functionalized heterostructures.


  • Charge transfer complexes
  • Planar proton-transfer systems
  • Molecular toggling systems


IRG 2 selected publications:

» JACS 2019
- S. Yang, J. Dai, Z. Yu, Y. Shao, Y. Zhou, X. Xiao, X. C. Zeng, and J. Huang, “Tailoring Passivation Molecular Structures for Extremely Small Open-Circuit Voltage Loss in Perovskite Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 141, 5781-5787 (2019).
- L. Ma, Y. Jia, S. Ducharme, J. Wang, and X. C. Zeng, “Diisopropylammonium Bromide Based Two-Dimensional Ferroelectric Monolayer Molecular Crystal with Large In-Plane Spontaneous Polarization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 141, 1452-1456 (2019).

» Science 2018
D. Lee, B. Chung, Y. Shi, G.-Y. Kim, N. Campbell, F. Xue, K. Song, S.-Y. Choi, J. P. Podkaminer, T. H. Kim, P. J. Ryan, J.-W. Kim, T. R. Paudel, J.-H. Kang, J. W. Spinuzzi, D. A. Tenne, E. Y. Tsymbal, M. S. Rzchowski, L. Q. Chen, J. Lee, and C. B. Eom, “Isostructural Metal-Insulator Transition in VO2,” Science 362, 1037-1040 (2018).

» ACS Nano 2018
A. Lipatov, M. J. Loes, H. Lu, J. Dai, P. Patoka, N. S. Vorobeva, D. S. Muratov, G. Ulrich, B. Kästner, A. Hoehl, G. Ulm, X. C. Zeng, E. Rühl, A. GruvermanP. A. Dowben, and A. Sinitskii, “Quasi-1D TiS3 Nanoribbons: Mechanical Exfoliation and Thickness-Dependent Raman Spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 12, 12713-12720 (2018).

» Nature Nanotechnology 2018
- K. Song, S. Ryu, H. Lee, T. R. Paudel, C. T. Koch, B. Park, J. K. Lee, S.-Y. Choi, Y.-M. Kim, J. C. Kim, H. Y. J., M. S. Rzchowski, E. Y. TsymbalC. B. Eom, and S. H. Oh, “Direct Imaging of the Electron Liquid at Oxide Interfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 198-203 (2018).
- L. Zhang, H. Lu, L. Xie, X. Yan, T. R. Paudel, J. Kim, X. Chen, H. Wang, C. Heikes, L. Li, M. Xu, D. G. Schlom, L.-Q. Chen, R. Wu, E. Y. TsymbalA. Gruverman, and X. Q. Pan, “Anisotropic Polarization-Induced Conductance at the Ferroelectric-Insulator Interface,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 1132-1136 (2018).

» Nano Letters 2018
H. Lu, D. Lee, K. Klyukin, L. L. Tao, B. Wang, H. Lee, T. R. Paudel, L.-Q. Chen, E. Y. TsymbalV. AlexandrovC. B. Eom, and A. Gruverman, “Tunneling Hot Spots in Ferroelectric SrTiO3,” Nano Lett. 18, 491-497 (2018).

» Advanced Materials 2017
Y. Lin, L. Shen, J. Dai, Y. Deng, Y. Wu, Y. Bai, X. Zheng, J. Wang, Y. Fang, H. Wei, W. Ma, X. C. Zeng, X. Zhan, and J. Huang, “π-Conjugated Lewis Base: Efficient Trap-Passivation and Charge-Extraction for Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1604545 [6pp] (2017).

» Nano Letters 2017
T. Li, P. K. Sharma, A. Lipatov, H. Lee, J.-W. Lee, M. Y. Zhuravlev, T. R. Paudel, Y. A. Genenko, C.-B. EomE. TsymbalA. SinitskiiA. Gruverman, "Polarization-Mediated Modulation of Electronic and Transport Properties of Hybrid MoS2−BaTiO3−SrRuO3 Tunnel Junctions," Nano Lett. 17, 922 (2017).

» Nano Letters 2016
- H. Lu, B. Wang, T. Li, A. Lipatov, H. Lee, A. Rajapitamahuni, R. Xu, X. Hong, S. Farokhipoor, L. W. Martin, C.-B. Eom, L.-Q. Chen, A. Sinitskii, and A. Gruverman, “Nanodomain Engineering in Ferroelectric Capacitors with Graphene Electrodes,” Nano Lett. 16, 6460-6466 (2016).
- H. Lee, T. H. Kim, J. R. Patzner, H. Lu, J. Lee, H. Zhou, W. Chang, M. Mahanthappa, E. Tsymbal, A. Gruverman, and C.-B. Eom, “Imprint Control of BaTiO3 Thin Films via Chemically-Induced Surface Polarization Pinning,” Nano Lett. 16, 2400-2406 (2016).
- M. Wu, S. Dong, K. Yao, J. Liu, and X. C. Zeng, “Ferroelectricity in Covalently functionalized Two-dimensional Materials: Integration of High-mobility Semiconductors and Nonvolatile Memory,” Nano Lett. 16, 7309-7315 (2016).

» Advanced Materials 2016
Q. Dong, J. Song, Y. Fang, Y. Shao, S. Ducharme, and J. Huang, “Lateral-Structure Single-Crystal Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Piezoelectric Poling,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2816-2821 (2016).

» Science 2015
D. Lee, H. Lu, Y. Gu, S.-Y. Choi, S.-D. Li, S. Ryu, T. R. Paudel, K. Song, E. Mikheev, S. Lee, S. Stemmer, D. A. Tenne, S. H. Oh, E. Y. Tsymbal, X. Wu, L.-Q. Chen, A. Gruverman, and C. B. Eom, "Emergence of Room-temperature Ferroelectricity at Reduced Dimensions," Science 349, Issue 6254, 1314-1317 (2015).

» Advanced Materials 2015
H. Lu, T. Li, S. Poddar, O. Goit, A. Lipatov, A. Sinitskii, S. Ducharme, and A. Gruverman, "Statics and Dynamics of Ferroelectric Domains in Diisopropylammonium Bromide," Adv. Mater. 27, 7832–7838 (2015).

» ACS Nano 2015
A. Lipatov, P. Sharma, A. Gruverman, and A. Sinitskii, "Optoelectrical Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2)--Ferroelectric Memories," ACS Nano 9, 8089–8098 (2015).